Calendar icon February 6, 2023

Where Do Indoor Air Pollutants Come From?

Here at Second Nature, we talk a lot about indoor air quality. It’s an underrated issue that we try to bring awareness to because indoor air pollution in your home can actually be much worse than outside and have detrimental effects on your health. There are a handful of common indoor air pollutants that make up most of the pollution inside your home, and the first step to protecting your home from those pollutants is understanding where they come from and where they usually are in your home. 


To make that easy, we’ve got some educational (yet still interesting, don’t worry) information about indoor air pollution, followed by a list of common indoor air pollutants, where they come from, and what parts of your home are most vulnerable to them. We top it off with how to reduce indoor air pollution to keep breathing easy.  

What is indoor air pollution and is it really that bad?

So, what is indoor air pollution? It’s a result of chemical, biological, and physical contaminants in the air inside your home. Sources of indoor air pollution can include cleaning products, insulation materials, or even activities like baking and cooking. These pollutants may cause allergies or lead to other serious health issues, such as respiratory diseases. 


The Environmental Protection Agency stated, “Indoor air pollutants have been ranked among the top five environmental risks to public health. The problems they cause can be subtle and do not always produce easily recognized or immediate impacts on health.” 


Poor indoor air quality can cause both short-term and long-term health problems. Short-term problems include headaches, tiredness, dizziness, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. These symptoms can usually be treated when the source of the pollution is removed from the home. Long-term symptoms are more severe and can include respiratory diseases, heart problems, and even cancer.

Indoor air pollution is a serious health hazard, so understanding how to find pollutants and how to reduce indoor air pollution is essential. 

What are the sources of indoor air pollution and where do pollutants come from?

The first step in understanding how to reduce indoor air pollution is to understand where these pesky pollutants come from. Let’s start with everyone’s favorite air springtime nuisance: pollen.

Where does pollen come from?

Pollen originates outdoors when it is released into the air by trees, plants,They exist in all homes and grass. Tree pollen is released during the spring, grass pollen occurs in the summer, and ragweed pollen is the worst offender in the fall.

Pollen’s primary method for entering your home involves hitching a ride on your clothes. Pollen is everywhere during its peak seasons and it will stick to soft fabrics with ease. Once it is in your home, pollen can stay on your clothes or fall into crevices into your carpets or rugs, where it will wait to be resuspended and inhaled.

Pollen can also grab a lift into your house on the back of your pets or just flow straight in through drafts around windows or doors. If you’re allergic to pollen, you can counter these issues by frequently washing your clothes, especially after you’ve been outside, as well as keeping pets out of bedrooms, and installing weatherstripping where necessary (and change your air filter!)

Where does smoke come from?



Unlike pollen, smoke isn’t going to cause a sneezing fit, but it’s objectively more dangerous to inhale. Smoke in the home can come from a variety of sources, most of which are easily removed by just avoiding them. Smoking cigarettes is an obvious one and something you should stop doing immediately for several reasons.

Candles are a big creator of indoor smoke pollution as well, and they also are known to release nasty chemicals into the air in addition to just smoke. If you want to burn candles, opt for beeswax or soy candles instead of anything that contains paraffin to minimize nastiness.

Finally, smoke can originate from wildfires that are hundreds of miles away. There are probably a lot of people who have never thought twice about wildfires, but smoke pollution from these gargantuan blazes is one of the most prominent sources of indoor air pollution that causes extremely serious air quality issues out west, especially in the summer and early fall.

It can become so bad that evacuation is the proper response, but in less serious cases, keeping your home well-sealed and using the highest quality air filter possible are good protection options. Smoke particles are very tiny, so at least a MERV 13 is recommended.

Where do dust mites come from?

Dust mites are tiny, microscopic relatives of the spider. They don’t bite, but their waste and byproducts are very common allergens in your home. Dust Mites feed on dead skin cells (they’re kinda gross) and can be found in places where those build up. Mattresses and couches are extremely popular locations for dust mites to live.

These pests can enter your home by hitching a ride on your clothes, you yourself, or really anything that comes and goes from your house. However, unless your home was just built yesterday, they’re already there. Any soft surface that you spend a lot of time in and around is vulnerable to being a dust mite home.

The places you spend the most time in are the places most vulnerable to dust mites, as those are the places that collect the most dead skin cells. Mattresses are their first pick of surfaces to live on, with couches, clothes, and carpets close behind. Read about how to fend off dust mites in our dust mite blog.

Where do bacteria come from?

Bacteria can enter your home in pretty much every way possible and are everywhere all the time. They're in the air. They're on surfaces. They're everywhere. Airborne bacteria, as the name implies, are in the air and can enter your home through doors and windows. Humans are also couriers of these tiny disease-causing creatures. They enter with us on our clothes, hair, and worst of all, shoes.

Once inside your home, the most common places to find bacteria are, not surprisingly, the kitchen and bathroom. Dish sponges, sinks, toothbrushes, and toothbrush holders are among the grossest places in your home, thus the most bacteria-friendly places.

Obviously, cleaning your surfaces and sinks with an antibacterial cleaner will help get rid of these common indoor air pollutants. Taking your shoes off, and asking guests to do the same, when you enter your house can help keep certain bacterial pathogens out of your home as well.


smog in a city

Where does smog come from?

Smog is another pollutant that originates from outside your home and can affect your indoor air quality by entering through drafts, places of insufficient insulation, and open doors and windows. Smog (combination of the words smoke and fog) is actually a nasty witch’s brew of lots of different air pollutants (It is not actually a combination of smoke and fog).

In the United States, smog is common out west and contains lots of tiny particles, as smoke particles from coal and emissions play a big role in its development. Because of this, using at least a MERV 13 air filter is the number one recommended approach to helping your indoor air quality against smog.

Where does pet dander come from?

Pets. Crazy, right? Yes, your little fur baby is likely causing indoor air pollution in your home. Pet dander is different from a lot of pollutants on this list as it originates from inside your home, so defeating it involves more cleaning than preventing. All furry animals produce dander, which obviously includes dogs and cats. The proteins in cat dander tend to be slightly more allergenic than those in dog dander, but both are potent allergens.

Dander particles have jagged edges so they stick to soft surfaces very easily. Because of this, they’re commonly found on bedding, couches, and within the nooks and crannies of carpets. These places, along with any place your dog or cat spends a lot of time, should see regular cleaning. It’s also a good idea to use at least a MERV 11 air filter, as dander particles tend to be small.

Where does mold come from?

Mold spores are already inside your home floating through the air. They exist in all homes, typically at very low concentrations below what is harmful to people. Mold becomes a problem in areas with excessive moisture and humidity. These environments are where mold can become harmful to your health.

Leaky pipes, bathroom and kitchen sinks, and showers are excellent starting points for mold issues. Basically anywhere where moisture can collect and stagnate. Old food is another one that everyone already knows. Much like dust mites, humidity also plays a factor in how conducive your home is to certain molds. Keeping the humidity in your home below 55% will make your house less appealing to mold and reduce indoor air pollution.

Carpets and clothes are secondary places that can harbor mold easily. Never leave wet clothes around and keep baking soda and vinegar around to deal with mold in your carpets. You can also decrease the amount of mold spores in your air by using a good air filter.

Where does dust come from?

What even is dust? It’s actually a combination of a ton of different random little things, some of which are the indoor air pollution examples in this article and some of which are not. Small pollen grains, paper fibers, hair fibers, dead skin cells, and more can make up dust (Dust mites get their name because they are commonly found among dust, which contains the aforementioned human skin cells they feed on).

Dust usually forms in your home, as its components are all sourced from different places in your home. It can settle on any surface, although it’s much easier to remove from hard floors than carpet. If you have allergies, it might be best to avoid carpet wherever possible, because of dust and similar pollutants ability to get stuck in it.

Using a pleated air filter and changing it regularly is step one for dust. Step two is to get after the dust that has already settled. Dust with wet cloths that pick up particles. Do not, I repeat DO NOT, use a feather duster. No idea if anyone still has those, but they just throw dust into the air and do nothing to actually collect it.

How to reduce indoor air pollution caused by all these common pollutants

You may have noticed that "Use a quality air filter" was mentioned about eight times above. That’s not just because we sell air filters (promise). Using at least a MERV 8 pleated air filter, and an 11 or 13 when necessary, is how to reduce indoor air pollution in your home, no matter what type of pollutant we’re talking about.


Air filters are the most effective way to capture and remove airborne pollutants indoors. ‍Not sure what size air filter to get? Learn about air filter sizes and MERV ratings to choose the best filter to enhance air quality safety in your home.

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Chambers Theory Endorses Second Nature’s Resident Benefits Package

Chambers Theory is a world-renowned property management team with clients in more than 30 countries worldwide. They specialize in serving the U.S. military, State Department, and Foreign Services families. Their motto “Real Estate With Intelligence” is more than just a saying. It’s on full display through the introductory videos for landlords and residents on their website in seven languages (Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Vietnamese, French, Croatian, and English) - all spoken fluently by their own property management (PM) team. Since its founding in 2018, Chambers Theory has been achieving extraordinary performance benchmarks. They’ve led the marketplace in delivering the “Golden Triangle of Success” to their clients, which means the lowest vacancy, the highest average rents, and the highest quality of tenants of any property management firm in its same service area. They’ve also donated over $100,000 to local charities and community organizations, while also leading the way in promoting sustainability practices in real estate and property management services. Their outstanding team attributes their success to their ability to develop and utilize their emotional intelligence skills to capacity to care with all their interactions with both landlords and residents. That’s why they fully endorse the Resident Benefits Package at Second Nature! Find out more about what a Resident Benefits Package is, its benefits, and how it can help create a Triple Win for you, as well as your residents and investors. Related: The State of Resident Experience Report

Calendar icon July 18, 2024

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Investor Experience Platform™️ IXP™️

An Investor Experience Platform™️ (IXP) in property management is a suite of products, services, and benefits offered by property management companies to property investors. Just like a resident benefits package is a way to drive value for residents, investors, and property managers, the IBP™️ is an innovative approach to property management that focuses on driving value for an investor's assets and turning that value into profit for the property management company. In this article, we’ll dig into the different features that an Investor Experience Platform™️ can include, and how those benefit not just investors, but property managers and residents, too. What Is an Investor Experience Platform™️ (IXP)? As stated above, an Investor Experience Platform™️ (IXP™️) is a comprehensive suite of services that offer property investors higher quality property management, stability, and profit. An IBP™️ typically includes concierge-level services beyond basic property management – such as property insurance policies, eviction guarantees, rent guarantees, maintenance plans, asset performance reports, etc. These services are aimed at maximizing the investor’s assets, stability and convenience, profitability, and peace of mind in managing their properties. They're commonly managed through an investor experience platform to securely manage and monitor the performance of these assets online, which we'll discuss later. The first step to outlining an IBP™️ is to define what your basic management fee means and covers. If the answer is, it’s collecting rent, handling maintenance, and general communication – does that include maintenance coordination or is that a separate fee? Does it include asset reporting or is that an additional service? In your management agreement, define what the management fee is, what it covers, and how much it is. An IBP™️ can be an effective tool for articulating the new and differentiated things that an investor wouldn’t be able to do on their own and that you are offering beyond basic property management. Articulate your unique and differentiated services (IBP™️) and use that as a tool for positioning and charging for what it’s worth. What’s Included in An Investor Experience Platform™️? An Investor Experience Platform™️ should include a range of solutions to help deliver consistency, insight, and asset protection to a property owner’s portfolio. After all, professional property managers don’t have to be functional managers of a home – they can be strategic partners in the management of financial assets. You might hear services similar to the IBP™️ called an “owner benefit package,” but at Second Nature, we believe that the “investor” term is useful in encouraging a longer-term mindset, and emphasizes the economic value professional property management can bring. According to Eric Wetherington, VP of Strategic Initiatives at PURE Property Management: “As property managers, we need to think more like asset managers. This client made an investment, and we should be guiding that client through managing that investment, not just collecting rent.” To build and manage a winning IBP™️, property managers need an Investor Experience Platform that unlocks scalable product and service customization, digitized onboarding, accounting policy automation, and more. In addition, Investor Experience Platforms provide transparency and convenience for your investors. Here are some of the most valuable services that property managers can offer through an innovative Investor Experience Platform™️. Property insurance program Similar to offering a renters insurance program through an RBP in the lease agreement, property management companies can offer an insurance plan to investors to cut costs and ensure the safety of their assets. Most management agreements will include the requirement that the investor carries insurance on the property and that the property manager is additionally insured. But what if you as the property manager could help manage that for the investor – at scale? Property Insurance for investors should have dynamic pricing based on individual investors’s property portfolio and needs. The benefit beyond flexibility is the savings they’ll see on their premiums while also getting insurance that’s tailored to the needs of their specific property class. At Second Nature, we work primarily with single-family rental properties and small multi-family residences. Property Insurance Programs can bring scale that will drive economic value for the investor over what they could get retail on their own. They’d still have the option to go get their own insurance that meets requirements, but they can pay you a small fee to manage it for them. Rent guarantee An IBP™️ can include a number of financial guarantees to protect property investors and drive ancillary revenue for PMCs. A rent guarantee, or rent protection, ensures a consistent rental income to investors by protecting them against resident defaults or non-payment of rent. If a resident fails to pay rent, the property management company covers the unpaid amount and takes necessary steps for eviction or collection, providing financial security and minimizing the risk for property owners. Rent guarantees work for professional property management companies that have enough properties to balance the loss of rent if a resident doesn’t pay. The risk is low and the additional profit from fees for this guarantee can have a very high ROI, while driving satisfaction and stability for the investor. Plus, if you’re using services in an RBP to help incentivize on-time rent payments, you’ll rarely find yourself out in the cold. Eviction protection guarantee An eviction protection guarantee also goes beyond the normal scope of property management services and can be used as a secondary source of revenue. Eviction Protection is a service provided by property management companies to property investors that offers additional security and financial protection in the event of an eviction. Under this guarantee, the property management company assumes the costs associated with the eviction process, including legal fees and court expenses. It helps alleviate the financial burden on property investors and provides peace of mind by ensuring that they are safeguarded against potential losses resulting from resident evictions. The eviction guarantee helps protect property owners from the complexities and potential costs associated with evictions, ensuring a smooth and efficient resolution to tenant-related issues. Pet guarantees & other guarantees A pet guarantee is a service offered by property management companies to property investors that aims to address any potential issues related to allowing pets in rental properties. It typically involves implementing policies and procedures to ensure responsible pet ownership, such as thorough pet screening, pet agreements, and collecting additional pet deposits or fees. The pet guarantee may also include services like pet damage insurance or assistance with pet-related issues during the lease term. It provides property investors with a framework to accommodate residents with pets while minimizing risks and maintaining the condition of the property. For many residents, finding a pet-friendly apartment increases retention and profitability. They’re willing to stay longer and pay more for a pet-friendly place. And–get this–pet damage is less likely to happen than damage from kids! It’s not a huge risk to the asset, but can provide a big benefit in terms of satisfied, longer-term residents. Maintenance plan Home warranties are a four-letter word for property managers. They’re a massive headache to deal with, and yet there’s high demand for them among property investors. Because of that, most property managers charge a fee for home warranties, for each they have to file. Imagine if there was a world where home warranties weren’t needed. Here’s the thing: Professional property managers already have the vendor network and the know-how to coordinate maintenance jobs. What they don’t usually have is a product that’s priced to give the investor the experience they want. Let’s say right now an investor is paying $50 a month for a cheap home warranty. The warranty only covers 40% of issues and it creates all these extra people and friction in the middle. For anything moderately significant that goes wrong with a property, PMCs generally must contact the investor for permission to get work done. It’s all a massive hassle and loses time in maintenance requests that leave residents frustrated. What if there was a product that costs, say, $150 to $200 a month but it actually covered everything? Instead of having sudden expenses and emergencies, this maintenance plan smooths out the experience and makes it more predictable for the investor. For PMs, it means taking the initiative on fixes without waiting for approval. Imagine a world where you didn’t have to get owner approvals for 95% of maintenance issues – because they’re already budgeted for and already paid for. For residents, it means better maintenance, and faster. Another Triple Win! Asset performance reports Another piece focuses on property managers as asset managers. Think about any investment app, like Robinhood, Acorns, etc. You can log in to these apps any time, 24/7, and see how your stock and investments are performing. In most investment classes, you can see in real time how your assets are performing. Why shouldn’t property investors have that as well? An IBP™️ can include exactly that: a dashboard or online portal that shows investors regular reports on how their property is doing. They could get updates on the value of their home over time, the home price appreciation, rent price over time, and project rent growth, typically maintenance costs and how they’re doing against that, and more. Resident Benefits Package Another piece to include in your IBP™️ is to highlight the benefits of your resident benefits package to your investors. Explain how features like a filter delivery program protect their assets and reduce HVAC repair costs. Show how a renters insurance program can ensure coverage and protection. Give numbers on how credit reporting incentivizes on-time rental payments and helps ensure financially stable renters. Explain how a movie-in concierge saves both time, headache, and money. Each of the pillars of an RBP is critical to encouraging better resident behavior, increasing renter retention and lease renewal rates, reducing vacancies, and more – all primary goals for a property investor. A note about Rent Advance Programs There’s been due buzz about “Rent Advance” offerings, though many advise caution when approaching this financial product. It works in some ways like cash advance programs, which can satisfy urgent needs, but not be more valuable for anyone long term. The way it works is PMs offer to send a year of rent upfront to the investor in a big chunk, and collect monthly from the resident. The investor typically pays a 5-10% premium on the advance, which can be their entire expected return. So the question becomes, where do they put that cash to get a better return instead? Another thing to think about is who would actually use this product. Investors who don’t have enough cash on hand? How does that benefit anyone in the long run? What happens when there’s a big maintenance bill later? Does this encourage better decisions and practices by the investor? To date, there’s been pretty low adoption of this program, which is another sign it may not be hugely beneficial to everyone involved. But plenty of innovations start that way, evolve, and find traction. One case where it might be a value generator is if an investor is looking to take a cash advance and put it toward a down payment for another house. That would benefit the property manager as well, promising more business, and the PM could offer a lower rate for getting more properties to make the financing more attractive than hard money loans or other alternatives. The jury is still out here, it’s an interesting one to track. How Can Investors and Property Managers Benefit From an Investor Experience Platform™️? Investors and property managers can benefit from an Investor Experience Platform™️ in several ways. They’re also great for residents in the sense they build more stability and quality into the renting process. Here are just some of the benefits of an IBP™️. Enhanced investor attraction An Investor Experience Platform™️ provides incentives and advantages that can attract more investors. Financial guarantees and protections against the risks associated with evictions or late payments can increase stability, while services like a maintenance plan can ensure premium care of their property assets without increasing their workload. By offering attractive perks, property managers can differentiate their offerings and generate greater investor interest. Increased investor retention Both IBP™️s and RBPs help build loyalty with residents and investors. By fostering a strong relationship and demonstrating ongoing value, property managers can build trust and loyalty among investors, and retain them over the long term. IBP™️s help establish the stability, transparency, and asset growth for a real estate investment that an investor hopes to achieve. Improved property performance An Investor Experience Platform™️ can also contribute to improved property performance. For example, by offering discounted property management fees or access to professional services at reduced rates, property managers can help investors optimize their returns and reduce costs. Additionally, incentives such as rent guarantees or eviction protection can mitigate risk for investors and attract more capital to the property. Streamlined communication and transparency A well-designed Investor Experience Platform™️ facilitates effective communication and promotes transparency between property managers and investors. This can involve regular reporting on financial performance, property updates, and the sharing of relevant market insights. Transparent and consistent communication builds trust and confidence among investors, fostering a positive and long-lasting relationship. Competitive advantage A comprehensive Investor Experience Platform™️ can give property managers a competitive edge in the market. When investors have access to exclusive benefits and advantages, they are more likely to choose a property managed by a company that offers a compelling package – and to recommend it to others. Say hello to increased investment inflow and a stronger market position for your PMC. Should You Make an Investor Experience Platform™️ Mandatory? The first thing most property managers ask us when we’re talking about an RBP or an IBP™️ is: Should I make this mandatory for all investors or do I make it a flexible opt-in/opt-out program? Unlike RBPs, where best practices are more proven and established, different PMs are taking different approaches with their IBP™️s. Some have a mandatory level of service set at a flat price. Others may say they’re fine offering a base level of service without these differentiated products, giving investors the choice to simply pay a baseline management fee and opt out of the IBP™️ premium service. Some may offer a baseline to all investors and then give them the chance to opt in for premium IBP™️ services. There are a lot of ways to do it. With the RBP, we’ve found that making it mandatory does not generate nearly as much pushback as people expect – and can be a strong value add overall. Final Thoughts About an Investor Experience Platform™️ The Investor Experience Platform™️ is an innovative way to generate ancillary income and create more value for investors and residents. Similar to Second Nature’s premier Resident Benefits Package, the IBP™️ can deliver high-quality service for investor experience – and help create a triple win for investors, residents, and property management companies. The IBP™️ reinforces the value of a professional property management company for investors and helps differentiate you from the crowd. Stay tuned to learn more about the latest in the IBP™️ space, or learn more about how a resident benefits package can launch a whole new level of value for your PMC.

Calendar icon July 17, 2024

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